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I Have A Dream Speech Summary Essay Sample

The Set-Up

We know that the name "March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom" is a little bit of a mouthful—but this is to pressure the Washington establishment to pay more attention to civil rights and take legal steps to outlaw segregation is one of those things that you have to know about. Whether or not you're a history buff or someone who's only vaguely aware of the fact that 1776 was a pretty big year, get your knowledge on when it comes to the March on Washington for a couple of reasons.

Reason #1: it was one of the largest protest marches in American history…and that's a history that has contained a lot of marches. Reason #2: Martin Luther King, Jr. was the big finale.

There were so many speakers that day that by the time he came to the podium and delivered "I Have a Dream," some people had already left, like people leaving during the fourth quarter of a basketball game.

And those people that left are probably still regretting that.

The Text

100% pure oratory awesomeness. Next question?

Oh, never mind. We're more that happy to lay out the text of "I Have A Dream," even though it starts our bottom lips quivering and our normally cynical hearts turning to hopeful mush.

The speech starts out by naming the huge problem: one hundred years after slavery ended, African Americans are still oppressed. As King himself put it, "We've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition" (3.5). (MLK was pretty good when it came to expressing things.)

At first, MLK sticks to the basic ideas he and his allies had written out before the speech. He describes the treatment of African Americans as a defaulted check—as in, the U.S. government wrote a check that bounced, and Black Americans got exactly nada.
He argues, "There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights" (7.5). The message is clear: this movement ain't stopping. King continues by giving encouragement to people who went to jail or got attacked by police while demonstrating for civil rights. Then he assures everyone that he (and the audience) won't be "satisfied" (9.4) until there's total equality in America. This is moving, riveting stuff, but it ain't half of what's coming.


Then the speech goes the improv route…and gets elevated from an already amazing speech to so-amazing-its-required-reading-for-all-Americans-starting-in-grade-school. Even wonder why there's an MLK day every January? This speech is at least 40% of the reason why, guys.

In a style that reflects his day job as a reverend, Martin Luther King, Jr. riffs on the "I have a dream" theme. For six paragraphs in a row, he describes a vision of racial unity between descendants of slaves and slave-owners—a revolution of tolerance.

The end of the speech references the song "America The Beautiful," riffing on the phrase "let freedom ring" (20.2-8). Another song, the African American spiritual "Free At Last," wraps up this epic speech.


This guy has a dream that one day all races will treat each other equally. Um, yes.

I Have A Dream Speech Summary

SuperSummary, a modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics. This one-page guide includes a plot summary and brief analysis of I Have A Dream Speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

The “I Have a Dream” speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was delivered during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. He gave the speech at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.; this speech expresses King’s notorious hope for America and the need for change. He opens the speech by stating how happy he is to be with the marchers, and emphasizes the historical significance of their march by calling it “the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.” He talks about Abraham Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation one hundred years before the march. He calls that proclamation “a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity,” where “their” refers to those who were enslaved. King then comes to the problems faced by African Americans in 1963, saying that one hundred years later, they still are not free. Instead, they are “sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.” He also discusses the poverty endured by black Americans. King talks about when the founders of the nation (“the architects of our republic”) wrote the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. He says they were writing a promissory note to every American, that all men were guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and that this included black men as well as white. He states that America defaulted on that check where black citizens are concerned by denying them those rights. “America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked insufficient funds,” he says.

King then adopts a more hopeful tone by adding that the “bank of justice” is not bankrupt. He also states that there is urgency in their cause: “This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.” He uses the seasons as a metaphor to describe this urgency by saying that the legitimate discontent of African Americans is a “sweltering summer,” and that freedom and equality will be an “invigorating autumn.” He also promises that this protest is not going away. It’s not about voicing grievances and then going back to the status quo: “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges,” he states. King then cautions his people not to commit any wrongful deeds. He says, “Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” This is a crucially important sentiment, as King’s leadership was defined by civil disobedience, not violence. He proved that real legal change could be made without resorting to violence. Though there was much violence during the Civil Rights movement, he was always for peace, and urged others to protest peacefully, what he calls in his speech “the high plane of dignity and discipline.” He also stresses the importance of recognizing white people who want to protest for this same cause—those allies that are necessary to its success. King provides some specific goals. He says they can’t stop marching so long as they suffer police brutality, so long as they’re turned away from hotels, so long as they’re confined to ghettos, so long as they’re subject to segregation, and so long as they do not have the right to vote. He then recognizes the struggles that many of the marchers have already endured, and asks them to undertake that struggle again, and to have hope that their situation can and will change.

Then comes the most famous part of this speech, for which it is titled. King says his dream is “deeply rooted in the American dream.” This reinforces the protestors’ rights to equality in America. He says he dreams that “the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.” This emphasizes the need for black and white Americans to work together. Central to the message of this speech, and the Civil Rights movement more generally, is this line: “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” He talks about the importance of faith, and that “all flesh shall see [the glory of the Lord] together.” That faith, he says, will help them in the struggles they’ve faced, the struggles they still face, and those struggles yet to come as they peacefully fight for liberty and equality. King then uses a line from the song, “My Country ‘Tis of Thee”: “This will be the day, this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning: ‘My country, ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!’” Only by realizing this as truth, King says, can America become a great nation. He begins the next section by mentioning mountainsides throughout the country, repeating “Let freedom ring.” King closes the speech with another iconic line: “When all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing the words of the old Negro spiritual: ‘Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’”

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