1 Kagajora

Only Assignment Call Increment C# Chord

This documentation is archived and is not being maintained.


Aircraft Configuration Files

The aircraft configuration file (aircraft.cfg) represents the highest level of organization within an aircraft container. Each aircraft has its own configuration file located in its container (aircraft folder). For example, the Cessna 172 aircraft.cfg can be found at:


The aircraft.cfg file specifies the versions of the aircraft included in the aircraft container, as well as the attributes (name, color, sound, panels, gauges, and so on) for each aircraft and where to find the files that define those attributes. Within the aircraft.cfg file there are a number of sections. Brackets enclosing the section name identify the various sections. In order for the simulation to make proper use of any variable, it is important that the variable be located in the correct section. While exact spelling is important, none of the terms is case-sensitive.

Normally aircraft containers are added to the SimObjects/Airplanes folder, however this is not a requirement. The ESP.cfg file has entries in the [Main] section determining which path to search for aircraft and other containers. For example:

Additional paths can be added to this file. The paths are either relative to the root folder of the simulation, or absolute paths -- which can also point to locations on other computers (using the "\\computer name" notation). For Windows XP the ESP.cfg file should be in the C:\Documents and Settings\<user name>\Application Data\Microsoft\ESP folder. For Windows Vista the file should be in the C:\Users\<user name>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\ESP folder.

See Also

Table of Contents

Testing Changes to the aircraft.cfg file

To see the effects of a change, the aircraft must be reloaded (this is because aircraft are loaded into the memory cache from disk, so you have to flush the cache to enable your changes to take effect). This involves a couple of steps:
  1. Configure a key command to Reload User Aircraft (which will reload your aircraft from within the simulation). To do this go to Settings, Controls Assignments, and scroll down to the Reload User Aircraft event.  By default, it’s unassigned.  Use Change Assignment to configure a keystroke combination for this event.  Once assigned, you can use this key command to reload the aircraft within the simulation.
  2. Turn off AI Traffic. AI traffic aircraft are maintained in the cache and even if you update the aircraft you are currently piloting, if the same aircraft is being used by AI traffic, then your cache won’t get updated automatically by simply reloading the plane.  So to ensure your aircraft is reloaded from disk, you must also go to the Settings Screen, choose Traffic, and set the Air Traffic Density slider all the way to the left to 0%.
  3. Now you can test changes made to an aircraft.cfg within the simulation by using the Reload User Aircraft key command after each change, or set of changes, is made. 
Any errors made in creating or editing the aircraft.cfg file will show up, along with the following error messages, while an aircraft is being loaded. The error messages are listed in order; that is, the first error message represents an error early in the aircraft-loading process.
Error MessageDescription
Aircraft initialization failure. Indicates that some essential files are missing from the aircraft container. If the files are missing, the aircraft will not usually be displayed in the Select Aircraft dialog box; as a result, this error is rare.
Failed to start up the flight model.The .air file was not loaded successfully.
This is not a Flight Simulator aircraft model. The visual model (.mdl) file for this aircraft is not compatible with ESP.
Visual model could not be displayed. An error occurred while loading the visual model (.mdl) file.

Datum Reference Point

Positions of aircraft components are given relative to the datum reference point for the aircraft, in the order: longitudinal, lateral, vertical. The convention for positions is positive equals forward, to the right, and vertically upward. Units are in feet.
The datum reference point itself is specified in the weight_and_balance section.

Sections of the Configuration File


Each [fltsim.n] section of an aircraft configuration file represents a different version (configuration) of the aircraft, and is known as a configuration set. Configuration sets allow a single aircraft container to represent several aircraft, and allow those aircraft to share components.

If there is only one section (labeled [fltsim.0]), it is because there is only one configuration set in that aircraft container. If there is more than one configuration set (labeled [fltsim.0], [fltsim.1], [fltsim.2], and so on), each one refers to a different version of the aircraft.

For instance, there are several versions of the Cessna 172, all housed in the same C172 aircraft container (folder). The various versions must vary by their title, and may also vary other items such as the panel, description, and sounds.

While these configuration sets share many components, they can each use different panels. The panel= line in the respective fltsim sections thus refer to the respective panel folder for each aircraft:  For example, panel=ifr means that this version of the C172 uses the panel files in the panel.ifr subfolder.

When creating and referencing multiple model, panel, sound, and texture directories, use the naming convention foldername.extension, where the extension is a unique identifier for that configuration set (for example, .ifr). To refer to the folder from the relevant parameter in the aircraft.cfg file, just specify the extension (for example, panel=ifr). If a parameter is not explicitly set it automatically refers to the default (extension-less) folder.

The parameters in each configuration set can refer to the same files, to different files, or to a mix of files. While using different panels, all Cessna configurations use the same sounds, and thus the sound parameters in all the fltsim sections point to the single sound folder in the C172 folder.

Each aircraft defined by a configuration set will appear as a separate listing in the Select Aircraft dialog box. The fact that multiple aircraft share some components is hidden from the user. From a user’s perspective, they are distinct aircraft (just as if all the common files were duplicated and included in three distinct aircraft containers). From a developer’s perspective, the aircraft are really just different configuration sets of the same aircraft. Because they share some files, they make much more efficient use of disk space.

Within each [fltsim.n] section are parameters that define the details of that particular configuration set:

titleThe title of the aircraft. Airbus A321( title=Airbus A321 )
Aircreation582SL( title= Aircreation582SL )
Boeing 737-800( title=Boeing 737-800 )
Boeing 747-400( title=Boeing 747-400 )
simSpecifies which AIR (flight model) file to use. The file is located in the same folder as the aircraft configuration file. Refer to Flight Models for details on how to create an AIR file.Airbus A321( sim=Airbus_A321 )
Aircreation582SL( sim=trike )
Boeing 737-800( sim=Boeing737-800 )
Boeing 747-400( sim=Boeing747-400 )
modelSpecifies which model folder to reference. If no entry is made, the default folder is used. Airbus A321( model= )
panelSpecifies which panel folder to reference. Airbus A321( panel= )
Beech Baron 58( panel=g1000 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( panel=G1000 )
soundSpecifies which sound folder to reference. Airbus A321( sound= )
textureSpecifies which texture folder to reference. Airbus A321( texture= )
Aircreation582SL( texture=1 )
Boeing 737-800( texture=2 )
Boeing 747-400( texture=3 )
kb_checklistsSpecifies which _check.txt file (located in the aircraft folder) to use on the Checklists tab of the kneeboard. Boeing 737-800( kb_checklists=Boeing737-800_check )
Boeing 747-400( kb_checklists=Boeing747-400_check )
Beech Baron 58( kb_checklists=Beech_Baron_58_check )
kb_referenceSpecifies which _ref.txt file (located in the aircraft folder) to use on the Reference tab of the kneeboard. Boeing 737-800( kb_reference=Boeing737-800_ref )
Boeing 747-400( kb_reference=Boeing747-400_ref )
Beech Baron 58( kb_reference=Beech_Baron_58_ref )
atc_idThe tail number displayed on the exterior of the aircraft. This parameter can also be edited from the Select Aircraft dialog (if the atc_id_enable parameter is set to 1). Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. Boeing 737-800( atc_id=N737Z )
Boeing 747-400( atc_id=N747 )
Beech Baron 58( atc_id=N058BE )
atc_airlineThe ATC system will use the specified airline name with this aircraft. This is dependant on ATC recognizing the name. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_flight_number. Boeing 737-800( atc_airline=American Pacific )
Boeing 747-400( atc_airline=Global Freightways )
Cessna Grand Caravan( atc_airline=Landmark )
atc_flight_numberThe ATC system will use this number as part of the aircrafts callsign. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_airline. Boeing 737-800( atc_flight_number=1123 )
ui_manufacturerThis value identifies the manufacturer sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog in ESP. Airbus A321( ui_manufacturer="Airbus" )
Aircreation582SL( ui_manufacturer="AirCreation" )
Boeing 737-800( ui_manufacturer="Boeing" )
Beech Baron 58( ui_manufacturer="Beechcraft" )
ui_typeThis value identifies the type sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog in ESP. Airbus A321( ui_type="A321" )
Aircreation582SL( ui_type= "582 SL Trike" )
Boeing 737-800( ui_type="737-800" )
Boeing 747-400( ui_type="747-400" )
ui_variationThis value identifies the variation sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog in ESP. Aircreation582SL( ui_variation="Green Wing" )
Boeing 737-800( ui_variation="American Pacific Airways" )
Boeing 747-400( ui_variation="Global Freightways" )
ui_typeroleThis value identifies the role of the aircraft. Airbus A321( ui_typerole="Commercial Airliner" )
Aircreation582SL( ui_typerole="Single Engine Prop" )
Beech Baron 58( ui_typerole="Twin Engine Prop" )
Beech King Air 350( ui_typerole="Twin Engine TurboProp" )
ui_createdbyThis value is used to identify the creator of the configuration file. Airbus A321( ui_createdby="Microsoft Corporation" )
descriptionThe aircraft description can be modified to say whatever you like about the aircraft. This information will be displayed in a description box when the aircraft is selected. (The \s is used to produce a semicolon ( ; ) punctuation mark within the description.). Boeing 737-800( description="One should hardly be surprised that the world's most prolific manufacturer of commercial aircraft is also the producer of the world's most popular jetliner. The 737 became the best-selling commercial jetliner worldwide when orders for it hit 1,831 in June 1987 (surpassing Boeing's own 727 as the previous champ). However, it wasn't always that way\s in the first few years of production, there were so few orders that Boeing considered canceling the program. They didn't, and the airplane has more than proven itself in over three decades of service." )

Boeing 747-400( description="More than 30 years ago, the 747 made its first trip from New York to London. Since then, it's become the standard by which other large passenger jets are judged. Its size, range, speed and capacity were then, and are now, the best in its class." )
visual_damageSetting this flag to 1 enables visual damage (e.g. parts breaking off) to be seen when crashing the aircraft into the scenery. Note: visual damage will only work if it is built into the aircrafts .mdl file. Aircreation582SL( visual_damage=1 )
atc_heavySetting this flag to 1 will result in the ATC system appending the phrase heavy to the aircrafts callsign. Aircreation582SL( atc_heavy=0 )
Boeing 747-400( atc_heavy=1 )
atc_parking_typesSpecifies the preferred parking for this aircraft, used by ATC. If this line is omitted, ATC will determine parking according to the type of aircraft and parking available. If multiple values are listed, preference will be given in the order in which they are listed. The valid values may be one or more of the following: RAMP, CARGO, GATE, DOCK, MIL_CARGO, MIL_COMBAT. Aircreation582SL( atc_parking_types=RAMP )
Boeing 747-400( atc_parking_types=CARGO )
de Havilland Dash 8-100( atc_parking_types=GATE,RAMP )
atc_parking_codesSpecifies one or more ICAO airline designations so that ATC can direct the aircraft to a gate that has also been designated specifically for that same airline, for example, "AAL" for American Airlines. Refer to the example XML for the TaxiwayParking entry in the Compiling BGL document. The codes entered in the airlineCodes entry should match the text entered here. The ICAO codes do not have to be used, and can be as short as one character, as long as the text strings match, but for clarity use of the ICAO codes is recommended.
If mutliple parking codes are entered, separate them with commas.
atc_id_colorSpecifies, in RGB hexadecimal, the color of the tail number. The first two characters following the 0x specify the red value in hex, the second two characters the green, and the third set the blue. The final two characters are unused. Each value can be between 0 to ff hex, which is 0 to 255 decimal. Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( atc_id_color=0xffffffff )
Cessna Grand Caravan( atc_id_color=0xff000000 )
Extra 300S( atc_id_color=0xffff0000 )
prop_anim_ratioThe ratio of rotor revolutions rendered to the actual revolutions in the simulator. Bell 206B JetRanger( prop_anim_ratio=-1.76 )
atc_modelThis is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Bell 206B JetRanger( atc_model= )


In addition to the fltsim sections, the general section contains information related to all variations of the aircraft.

atc_typeThis is the specific aircraft type that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Aircreation582SL( atc_type=Ultralight )
Boeing 737-800( atc_type=BOEING )
Beech Baron 58( atc_type=BARON )
atc_modelThis is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Aircreation582SL( atc_model=Trike )
Boeing 737-800( atc_model=B738 )
Boeing 747-400( atc_model=B744 )
performanceThe performance description for the aircraft can be edited. The \t is a tab character, and the \n is a new-line character. As the flight model for all variations is the same, the performance of each variation should also be identical. Aircreation582SL( performance="Wing span: 10.6 m\nLength: 2.57 m\nWeight: 1.96 m\nHeight: 2.57 m\nEngine: 582 Rotax 1 x CDI 53 hp\nPropeller: 2 wood blades\nFuel tank composite 52 liters ( 8 US Gal)\nDesigner: MJPP Design\nDate: 15\/11\/02\n\n" )

Boeing 737-800( performance="Cruise Speed \n477 kts 550 mph 885 km\/h\n\nEngines \nCFM56-3C1\n\nMaximum Range \n2,059 nm 2,370 mi 3,810 km\n\nService Ceiling \n36, 089 ft 11,000 m\n\nFuel Capacity \n5,311 U.S. gal 20,104 L\n\nEmpty Weight-Standard \n76,180 lb 34,550 kg\n\nMaximum Gross Weight\n150,000 lb 68,039 kg\n\nLength \n120 ft 36.45 m\n\nWingspan \n94 ft, 9 in 25.9 m\n\nHeight \n36.5 ft 11.13 m\n\nSeating \nSeats 147 to 168\n\nCargo Capacity \n1,373 ft3 38.93 m3\n\n" )

Boeing 747-400( performance="Cruise Speed\n0.85 Mach 565 mph 910 km\/h\n\nEngine options\nPratt & Whitney PW4062\nRolls-Royce RB211-524H\nGeneral Electric CF6-80C2B5F\n\nMaximum Range\n7,325 nm 13,570 km\n\nMaximum Certified Operating Altitude 45,100 ft 13,747 m\n\nFuel Capacity\n57,285 gal 216,840 L\n\nBasic Empty Weight\n394,088 lb 178,755 kg\n\nMax Gross Weight 875,000 lb 396,893 kg\n\nLength\n231 ft, 10 in 70.6 m\n\nWingspan\n211 ft, 5 in 64.4 m\n\nHeight\n63 ft, 8 in 19.4 m\n\nSeating Typical 3-class configuration - 416\nTypical 2-class configuration - 524" )
categoryFor aircraft, one of airplane or helicopter. Airbus A321( Category = airplane )
Maule M7 260C( category = Airplane )
Bell 206B JetRanger( Category = Helicopter )


The vertical_speed_time_constant parameter can be used to tune the lag of the Vertical Speed Indicator for the aircraft:

  • Increasing the time constant decreases the lag, making the gauge react more quickly.
  • Decreasing the time constant increases the lag, making the gauge react more slowly.
  • A value of 0 effectively causes the indication to freeze. If an instantaneous indication is desired, use an excessively large value, such as 99.
  • If the line is omitted, the default value is 2.0.
vertical_speed_time_constantIncreases or decreases the lag of the vertical speed indicator. Increasing will cause a more instantaneous reaction in the VSI. Airbus A321( vertical_speed_time_constant = 1 )
Beech Baron 58( vertical_speed_time_constant = 1.0 )
Sailplane( vertical_speed_time_constant = 4 )
pitot_heatScale of heat effectiveness, or 0 if not available. Airbus A321( pitot_heat = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( pitot_heat=0.000000 )
Sailplane( pitot_heat = 0.0 )


The weight and center of gravity of the aircraft can be affected through the following parameters.

In the stock aircraft, the station_load.0, 1, etc. parameters are enclosed in quotation marks. These are used by internal language translation tools.
Moments of Inertia

A moment of inertia (MOI) defines the mass distribution about an axis of an aircraft. A moment of inertia for a particular axis is increased as mass is increased and/or as the given mass is distributed farther from the axis. This is largely what determines the inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

The following weight and balance parameters define the MOIs of the empty aircraft, so the values should not reflect fuel, passengers or baggage. The simulation engine determines the total MOIs with these additional, and variable, influences. The units are slugs per foot squared. Omission of a parameter will result in the use of a default value set in the .air file, if one exists.
These values can be estimated with the following formula:
  • MOI = EmptyWeight * (D^2 / K)
D = Length (feet)Wingspan (feet)  0.5* (Length+Wingspan)
K =8101870770
This formula yields only rough estimates. Actual values vary based on aircraft material, installed equipment, and number of engines and their positions.
max_gross_weightMaximum design gross weight of the aircraft. Airbus A321( max_gross_weight = 150000 )
Aircreation582SL( max_gross_weight= 600.000 )
Boeing 747-400( max_gross_weight = 875000 )
Beech Baron 58( max_gross_weight = 5524 )
empty_weightTotal weight (in pounds) of the aircraft minus usable fuel, passengers, and cargo. If not specified, the value previously set in the .air file will be used. Airbus A321( empty_weight = 74170 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight= 310.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight = 394088 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight = 3911 )
reference_datum_positionOffset (in feet) of the aircraft's reference datum from the standard center point, which is on the centerline chord aft of the leading edge. By adjusting this position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0,0,0. Aircreation582SL( reference_datum_position= 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( reference_datum_position = 83.5, 0, 0 )
Beech Baron 58( reference_datum_position = 6.96, 0, 0 )
empty_weight_cg_positionOffset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the datum reference point . Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_CG_position= 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_CG_position = -90.5, 0, 0 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_CG_position = -6.06, 0, 0 )
max_number_of_stationsSpecifies the maximum number of stations (specific locations) for the aircraft when it is loaded. This does allow an unlimited number of stations to be specified, but note that an excessively large number here results in a longer load time for the aircraft when selected, although there is no effect on real-time performance. Airbus A321( max_number_of_stations = 50 )
Aircreation582SL( max_number_of_stations=50 )
Douglas DC-3( max_number_of_stations =50 )
Specifies the weight and position of passengers or payload at a station specified with a unique number, station_load.N. The first parameter number on each line specifies the weight (in pounds), followed by the offset relative to datum reference point. The addition of stations results in a corresponding change in aircraft flight dynamics due to the change of the total weight and moments of inertia. Airbus A321( station_load.0 = 170.0, 41.0, -1.5, 0.0 )
Aircreation582SL( station_load.0=0.000000,0.000000,0.000000,0.000000 )
Boeing 747-400( station_load.0 = 170.0, -19.0, -2.0, 8.0 )
Beech Baron 58( station_load.0 = 170, -6.54, -1.20, 0.0 )

Airbus A321( station_load.8 = 4000.0, -27.5, 0.0, 0.0 )
Boeing 747-400( station_load.8 = 23800.0, -160.0, 0.0, 0.0 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( station_load.8 = 0, -23.2, -1.5, 0.0 )
Douglas DC-3( station_load.8 = 340.0, -33.7, 0.0, 0.0 )
This field is the string name that is used in the Payload dialog (15 character limit). Omission of this will result in a generic station name being used.

Note that the station name can also follow the station_load information, for example:
Airbus A321( station_load.0 = 170.0, 41.0, -1.5, 0.0, Pilot)
McDonnell-Douglas/Boeing MD-83( station_name.0 = "Payload" )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( station_name.1 = "Front Passenger" )

Airbus A321( station_name.0 = "Pilot" )
Airbus A321( station_name.1 = "Co-Pilot" )
Airbus A321( station_name.2 = "Crew" )
Airbus A321( station_name.3 = "First Class" )
Airbus A321( station_name.4 = "Coach 3-10" )
Airbus A321( station_name.5 = "Coach 11-18" )
Airbus A321( station_name.6 = "Coach 19-25" )
Airbus A321( station_name.7 = "Forward Baggage" )
Airbus A321( station_name.8 = "Aft Baggage" )
empty_weight_pitch_moiThe moment of inertia (MOI) about the lateral axis. Airbus A321( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3172439 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_pitch_MOI= 230.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 24223159 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3905.65 )
empty_weight_roll_moiThe moment of inertia (MOI) about the longitudinal axis. Airbus A321( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2262183 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_roll_MOI= 205.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 13352310 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2718.64 )
empty_weight_yaw_moiThe moment of inertia (MOI) about the vertical axis. Airbus A321( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 3337024 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_yaw_MOI= 290.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 39531785 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 5291.04 )
empty_weight_coupled_moiThe moment of inertia (MOI) about the roll and yaw axis (usually zero). Airbus A321( empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.000 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0.0 )


Flight control effectiveness parameters

The elevator, aileron and elevator effectiveness parameters are multipliers on the default power of the control surfaces. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the effectiveness by 10 percent. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the effectiveness by 10 percent. A negative number reverses the normal effect of the control. Omission of a parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

Stability parameters

The pitch, roll and yaw parameters are multipliers on the default stability (damping effect) about the corresponding axis of the airplane. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the damping by 10%. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the damping by 10%. A negative number results in an unstable characteristic about the axis. A positive damping effect is simply a moment in the direction opposite of the rotational velocity. Omission of a parameter will result in the default value of 1.0.

Lift parameter

The cruise_lift_scalar parameter is a multiplier on the coefficient of lift at zero angle of attack Cruise lift in this context refers to the lift at relatively small angles of attack, which is typical for an airplane in a cruise condition. This scaling is decreased linearly as angle of attack moves toward the critical (stall) angle of attack, which prevents destabilizing low speed and stall characteristics at high angles of attack. Modify this value to set the angle of attack (and thus pitch) for a cruise condition. A negative value is not advised, as this will result in extremely unnatural flight characteristics. Omission of this parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

High Angle of Attack parameters

The hi_alpha_on_roll and hi_alpha_on_yaw  parameters are multipliers on the effects on roll and yaw at high angles of attack.  The default values are 1.0.

Propeller-induced turning effect parameters

The p_factor_on_yaw, torque_on_roll, gyro_precession_on_pitch and gyro_precession_on_yaw parameters are multipliers on the effects induced by rotating propellers. These are often called “left turning tendencies” for clockwise rotating propellers. The simulation correctly handles counter-clockwise rotating propellers. The default values are 1.0.

Drag parameters

Drag is the aerodynamic force that determines the aircraft speed and acceleration. There are two basic types of drag that the user can adjust here. Parasitic drag is composed of two basic elements: form drag, which results from the interference of streamlined airflow, and skin friction. Parasite drag increases as airspeed increases. Induced drag results from the production of lift. Induced drag increases as angle of attack increases.

The parasite_drag_scalar and induced_drag_scalar parameters are multipliers on the two respective drag coefficients. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the respective drag component by 10 percent. A value of 0.9 decreases the drag by 10 Percent. Negative values are not advised, as extremely unnatural flight characteristics will result.  The default values are 1.0.

cruise_lift_scalarCL0. Airbus A321( cruise_lift_scalar = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( cruise_lift_scalar=1.000 )
parasite_drag_scalarCd0.Airbus A321( parasite_drag_scalar = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( parasite_drag_scalar=1.000 )
induced_drag_scalarCdi.Airbus A321( induced_drag_scalar = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( induced_drag_scalar=1.000 )
elevator_effectivenessCmde. Airbus A321( elevator_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_effectiveness=1.000 )
aileron_effectivenessClda. Airbus A321( aileron_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_effectiveness=1.000 )
rudder_effectivenessCndr. Airbus A321( rudder_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder_effectiveness=0.501 )
pitch_stabilityCmq. Airbus A321( pitch_stability = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( pitch_stability=1.000 )
roll_stabilityClp. Airbus A321( roll_stability = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( roll_stability=1.000 )
yaw_stabilityCnr. Airbus A321( yaw_stability = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( yaw_stability=1.000 )
elevator_trim_effectivenessCmdetr. Airbus A321( elevator_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_trim_effectiveness=1.000 )
aileron_trim_effectivenessCldatr. Airbus A321( aileron_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_trim_effectiveness=1.000 )
rudder_trim_effectivenessCndrtr. Airbus A321( rudder_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder_trim_effectiveness=1.000 )
hi_alpha_on_rollSee notes above.
p_factor_on_yawSee notes above. Douglas DC-3( p_factor_on_yaw = 0.5 )
Piper Cub( p_factor_on_yaw = 0.3 )
torque_on_rollDouglas DC-3( torque_on_roll = 1.0 )
Extra 300S( torque_on_roll = 0.5 )
Piper Cub( torque_on_roll = 0.3 )
gyro_precession_on_yawSee notes above. Douglas DC-3( gyro_precession_on_yaw = 1.0 )
Piper Cub( gyro_precession_on_yaw = 0.3 )
gyro_precession_on_pitchDouglas DC-3( gyro_precession_on_pitch = 1.0 )
Piper Cub( gyro_precession_on_pitch = 0.3 )


Every type of aircraft, even a glider, should have this section in the aircraft.cfg file.  Basically, this section describes the type of engine, the number of engines, where the engines are located, and a fuel flow scalar to modify how much fuel the engine requires to produce the calculated power.

engine_typeInteger that identifies what type of engine is on the aircraft. 0 = piston, 1 = Jet, 2 = None, 3 = Helo-turbine, 4 = Rocket (not supported) 5 = Turboprop. Airbus A321( engine_type = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( engine_type= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( engine_type = 0 )
Beech King Air 350( engine_type = 5 )
Offset of the engine from the datum reference point. Each engine location specified increases the engine count (maximum of four engines allowed). Airbus A321( Engine.0 = 4.75, -16.1, -4.5 )
Aircreation582SL( Engine.0= -3.000, 0.000, 2.000 )
Beech Baron 58( Engine.0 = -1.4, -5.3, 0.0 )

Boeing 747-400( Engine.0 = -107.5, -69.5, -6.9 )
Boeing 747-400( Engine.1 = -76.0, -38.9, -10.4 )
Boeing 747-400( Engine.2 = -76.0, 38.9, -10.4 )
Boeing 747-400( Engine.3 = -107.5, 69.5, -6.9 )
fuel_flow_scalarScalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting. Airbus A321( fuel_flow_scalar = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( fuel_flow_scalar= 1.000 )
Boeing 747-400( fuel_flow_scalar = 1.0 )
Beech Baron 58( fuel_flow_scalar= 0.9 )
min_throttle_limitDefines the minimum throttle position (percent of max). Normally 0 for piston aircraft and -0.25 for turbine airplane engines with reverse thrust. Airbus A321( min_throttle_limit = -0.25 )
Aircreation582SL( min_throttle_limit=0.000000 )
Boeing 747-400( min_throttle_limit = -0.25; )
Beech Baron 58( min_throttle_limit = 0.0; )
max_contrail_temperatureAmbient temperature, in celsius, in which engine vapor contrails will turn on. The default value is about -39 degrees celsius for turbine engines. For piston engines, the contrail effect is turned off unless a temperature value is set here. Airbus A321( max_contrail_temperature = -30 )
master_ignition_switch1=Available, 0=Not Available (default). If available, this switch must be on for the ignition circuit, and thus the engines, to be operable. Turning it off will stop all engines. Douglas DC-3( master_ignition_switch = 1 )
starter_typeSet to 1 for a Manual StarterCurtiss Jenny( starter_type = 1 )
thrustanglepitchheading.0Thrust pitch and heading angles in degrees ( positive pitch down, positive heading right). Cessna Skyhawk 172SP Paint1 ( ThrustAnglePitchHeading.0 = 0,0 )


A turbine engine ignites fuel and compressed air to create thrust.  These parameters define the power (thrust) output of a given jet turbine engine.

fuel_flow_gainFuel flow gain constant. Airbus A321( fuel_flow_gain = 0.002 )
Boeing 747-400( fuel_flow_gain = 0.002 )
Beech King Air 350( fuel_flow_gain = 0.011 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( fuel_flow_gain = 0.0025 )
inlet_areaEngine nacelle inlet area, (in square feet). Airbus A321( inlet_area = 19.6 )
Boeing 747-400( inlet_area = 60.0 )
Beech King Air 350( inlet_area = 1.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( inlet_area = 9.4 )
rated_n2_rpmSecond stage compressor rated rpm. Airbus A321( rated_N2_rpm = 29920 )
Boeing 747-400( rated_N2_rpm = 29920 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( rated_N2_rpm = 33000 )
static_thrustMaximum rated static thrust at sea level (lbs). Airbus A321( static_thrust = 23500 )
Boeing 747-400( static_thrust = 56750 )
Beech King Air 350( static_thrust = 158 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( static_thrust = 12670 )
afterburner_availableA number, indicating the number of afterburner stages available.Airbus A321( afterburner_available = 0 )
Boeing 747-400( afterburner_available = 0 )
FA-18 Hornet ( afterburner_available = 6 )
reverser_availableSpecifies the scalar on the calculated reverse thrust effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal reverse thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. Airbus A321( reverser_available = 1 )
Boeing 747-400( reverser_available = 1 )
thrustspecificfuelconsumptionJet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies at all speeds. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( ThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.6 )
Boeing 747-400 Paint1( ThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.4 )
afterburnthrustspecificfuelconsumptionJet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies only when the afterburner is active. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( AfterBurnThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0 )
FA-18 Hornet ( AfterBurnThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.5 )
afterburner_throttle_thresholdPercentage of throttle range when the afterburner engages. FA-18 Hornet ( afterburner_throttle_threshold = 0.76 )


The thrust_scalar parameter scales the calculated thrust for jet engines (thrust taken from the [TurbineEngineData] section).
thrust_scalarParameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. Airbus A321( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )


These parameters configure the characteristics of the aircraft's electrical system and its components. Each aircraft has a battery as well as an alternator or generator for each engine.

Below is a table of electrical section parameters shown with default values for Bus Type, Max Amp Load and Min Voltage (the values applied if the parameters are omitted). The default Min Voltage equals 0.7*Max Battery Voltage. The list of components also reflects all of the systems currently linked to the electrical system. If a component is included in the list but the aircraft does not actually have that system, the component is simply ignored.
Bus Type
Specifies which bus in the electrical system the component is connected to, according to the following bus type codes:
Bus TypeBus
0Main Bus (most components connected here)
1Avionics Bus
2Battery Bus
3Hot Battery Bus (bypasses Master switch)
4Generator/Alternator Bus 1 (function of engine 1)
5Generator/Alternator Bus 2 (function of engine 2)
6Generator/Alternator Bus 3 (function of engine 3)
7Generator/Alternator Bus 4 (function of engine 4)
Max Amp Load

Max Amp Load is the current required to power the component, and of course becomes the additional load on the electrical system.

Min Voltage

Min Voltage is the minimum voltage required from the specified bus for the component to function.

flap_motorBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( flap_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
gear_motorBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( gear_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
autopilotBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( autopilot = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
avionics_busBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( avionics_bus = 0, 5, 17.0 )
Boeing 747-400( avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 9.5 )
avionicsBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( avionics = 1, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( avionics = 1, 5 , 9.5 )
pitot_heat Bus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( pitot_heat = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
additional_systemBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( additional_system = 0, 2, 17.0 )
Beech King Air 350( additional_system = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( additional_system = 0, 2 , 9.5 )
marker_beaconBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 9.0 )
gear_warningBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( gear_warning = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
fuel_pumpBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 9.0 )
starter1Bus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( starter1 = 0, 20, 17.0 )
starter2Bus type, max amp, min voltage
starter3Bus type, max amp, min voltage
starter4Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_navBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( light_nav = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_beaconBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( light_beacon = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_landingBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( light_landing = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_taxiBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( light_taxi = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_strobeBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( light_strobe = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_panelBus type, max amp, min voltageAirbus A321( light_panel = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_cabinBus type, max amp, min voltage
prop_syncBus type, max amp, min voltage
auto_featherBus type, max amp, min voltage
auto_brakesBus type, max amp, min voltage
standby_vacuumBus type, max amp, min voltage
hydraulic_pumpBus type, max amp, min voltage
fuel_transfer_pumpBus type, max amp, min voltage
propeller_deiceBus type, max amp, min voltage
light_recognitionBus type, max amp, min voltage
light_wingBus type, max amp, min voltage
light_logoBus type, max amp, min voltage
directional_gyroBus type, max amp, min voltage
directional_gyro_slavingBus type, max amp, min voltage
max_battery_voltageThe maximum voltage to which the battery can be charged. It is also the voltage available from the battery when the aircraft is initialized. The battery voltage will decrease from this if the generators or alternators are not supplying enough current to meet the demand of the active components.Beech Baron 58( max_battery_voltage = 24.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_battery_voltage = 24 )
Extra 300S( max_battery_voltage = 12.0 )
Maule M7 260C( max_battery_voltage = 12.0 )
generator_alternator_voltageVoltage of the generators or alternators.Beech Baron 58( generator_alternator_voltage = 28.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( generator_alternator_voltage = 25.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( generator_alternator_voltage = 28 )
Douglas DC-3( generator_alternator_voltage = 25 )
max_generator_alternator_ampsMaximum generator/alternator amps.Beech Baron 58( max_generator_alternator_amps = 60.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_generator_alternator_amps = 40.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_generator_alternator_amps = 50 )
Douglas DC-3( max_generator_alternator_amps = 100 )
engine_generator_mapList of flags, corresponding to the number of engines, indicating whether there is a generator configured with the engine.Ford 4-AT-E Tri-Motor( engine_generator_map= 0,1,0 )
electric_always_availableSet to 1 if electric power is available regardless of the state of the battery or circuit.


You can configure and adjust the way aircraft reacts to different kinds of contact, including landing gear contact and articulation, braking, steering, and damage accrued through excessive speed. You can also configure each contact point independently for each aircraft, and there is no limit to the number of points you can add. When importing an aircraft that does not contain this set of data, the program will generate the data from the .air file the first time the aircraft is loaded, and then write it to the aircraft.cfg.

Each contact point contains a series of values that define the characteristics of the point, separated by commas. A contact point has 16 parameters, described in the following table:

Contact Point Parameter (and example)ElementDescription
1  (1)ClassInteger defining the type of contact point: 0 = None, 1 = Wheel, 2 = Scrape, 3 = Skid, 4 = Float, 5 = Water Rudder
2 (-18.0)Longitudinal PositionThe longitudinal distance of the point from the datum reference point.
3 (0)Lateral PositionThe lateral distance of the point from the datum reference point.
4 (-3.35)Vertical PositionThe vertical distance of the point from the datum reference point.
5 (3200)Impact Damage ThresholdThe speed at which an impact with the ground can cause damage (feet/min).
6 (0)Brake MapDefines which brake input drives the brake (wheels only).
0 = None, 1 = Left Brake, 2 = Right Brake.
7 (0.50)Wheel RadiusRadius of the wheel (feet).
8 (180)Steering AngleThe maximum angle (positive and negative) that a wheel can pivot (degrees).
9 (0.25)Static CompressionThis is the distance a landing gear is compressed when the empty aircraft is at rest on the ground (feet). This term defines the “strength” of the strut, where a smaller number will increase the “stiffness” of the strut.
10 (2.5)Ratio of Maximum Compression to Static CompressionRatio of the max dynamic compression available in the strut to the static value. Can be useful in coordinating the “compression” of the strut when landing.
11 (0.90)Damping RatioThis ratio describes how well the ground reaction oscillations are damped. A value of 1.0 is considered critically damped, meaning there will be little or no osciallation. A damping ratio of 0.0 is considered undamped, meaning that the oscillations will continue with a constant magnitude. Negative values result in an unstable ground handling situation, and values greater than 1.0 might also cause instabilities by being “over” damped. Typical values range from 0.6 to 0.95.
12 (1.0)Extension TimeThe amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully extend under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
13 (4.0)Retraction TimeThe amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully retract under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
14 (0)Sound TypeThis integer value will map a point to a type of sound:
0 = Center Gear,
1 = Auxiliary Gear,
2 = Left Gear,
3 = Right Gear,
4 = Fuselage Scrape,
5 = Left Wing Scrape,
6 = Right Wing Scrape,
7 = Aux1 Scrape,
8 = Aux2 Scrape,
9 = Tail Scrape.
15 (0)Airspeed LimitThis is the speed at which landing gear extension becomes inhibited (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.
16 (200)Damage from AirspeedThe speed above which the landing gear accrues damage (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.
Each contact point's data set takes the form “point.n=”, where “n” is the index to the particular point, followed by the data.
Contact points that match the format described above.Airbus A321( point.0=1, 40.00, 0.00, -8.40, 1181.1, 0, 1.442, 55.92, 0.6, 2.5, 0.9, 4.0, 4.0, 0, 220.0, 250.0 )
Aircreation582SL( point.0= 1.000, 2.583, 0.000, -1.000, 1574.803, 0.000, 0.504, 31.860, 0.235, 2.500, 0.731, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 ) Beech Baron 58( point.0 = 1, 0.82, 0.00, -3.77, 1600, 0, 0.633, 40, 0.42, 4.0, 0.90, 3.0, 3.0, 0, 152, 180 )

Boeing 747-400( point.0 = 1, -25.0, 0.0, -17.5, 1000.0, 0, 2.0, 70.0, 0.5, 3.5, 0.900, 9.0, 8.0, 0, 220, 250 )
Boeing 747-400( point.1 = 1, -114.0, -18.0, -21.3, 2000.0, 1, 2.0, 13.0, 3.0, 2.5, 0.900, 11.0, 9.0, 2, 220, 250 )
Boeing 747-400( point.2 = 1, -114.0, 18.0, -21.3, 2000.0, 2, 2.0, 13.0, 3.0, 2.5, 0.900, 11.0, 9.0, 3, 220, 250 )
Boeing 747-400( point.3 = 2, -152.6, -103.5, 3.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 5, 0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( point.4 = 2, -152.6, 103.5, 3.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 6, 0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( point.5 = 2, 3.0, 0.0, 0.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 9, 0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( point.6 = 2, -222.7, 0.0, 4.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 4, 0, 0 )

max_number_of_pointsInteger value indicating the maximum number of contact points the program will look for. Airbus A321( max_number_of_points = 21 )
static_pitchThe static pitch of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (degrees). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. Airbus A321( static_pitch=0.04 )
Aircreation582SL( static_pitch= 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( static_pitch = -1.5 )
Beech Baron 58( static_pitch = 1.56 )
static_cg_heightThe static height of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (feet). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. Airbus A321( static_cg_height=7.67 )
Aircreation582SL( static_cg_height= 1.000 )
Boeing 747-400( static_cg_height = 18.6 )
Beech Baron 58( static_cg_height = 3.43 )
gear_system_typeThis parameter defines the system type which drives the gear extension and retraction.
0 = electrical
1 = hydraulic
2 = pneumatic
3 = manual
4 = none
Airbus A321( gear_system_type=1 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_system_type=0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( gear_system_type=3 )
emergency_extension_typeOne of:
Bombardier CRJ 700( emergency_extension_type=2 )
tailwheel_lockBoolean defining if a tailwheel lock is available (applicable only on tailwheel airplanes). Douglas DC-3( tailwheel_lock = 1 )


The following parameters define the functionality of the aircraft’s gear warning system. This is generally a function of the throttle lever position and the flap deflection.

gear_warning_availableSets the type of gear warning system available on the aircraft, one of:
0 = None, 1 = Normal, 2 = Amphibian (audible alert for water vs. land setting).
Airbus A321( gear_warning_available = 1 )
pct_throttle_limitThe throttle limit, below which the gear warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the flaps are deflected to at least the setting for flap_limit_idle below. This flap limit can be 0 so that the warning effectively is a function of the throttle. A value between: 0 (idle) and 1.0 (Max throttle). Airbus A321( pct_throttle_limit = 0.1 )
flap_limit_idleIn conjunction with the throttle limit specified above, this limit is the flap deflection, above which the warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the throttle is below the limit specified above. By setting this limit to a value greater than zero, the pilot can reduce the throttle to idle without activating the warning. This is often utilized in jets to decelerate/descend the aircraft. Airbus A321( flap_limit_idle = 5.0 )
Beech Baron 58( flap_limit_idle = 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( flap_limit_idle = 15.0 )
flap_limit_powerThe flap limit, above which the warning will activate (regardless of throttle position). Airbus A321( flap_limit_power = 25.5 )
Beech Baron 58( flap_limit_power = 31.5 )
Beech King Air 350( flap_limit_power = 30.0 )
Douglas DC-3( flap_limit_power = 16.0 )


The following parameters define the aircraft's braking system:

parking_brakeBoolean setting if a parking brake is available on the aircraft. Airbus A321( parking_brake = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( parking_brake=1 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( parking_brake = 0 )
toe_brakes_scaleSets the scaling of the braking effectiveness. 1.0 is the default. 0.0 scales the brakes to no effectiveness. Airbus A321( toe_brakes_scale = 0.885 )
Aircreation582SL( toe_brakes_scale=1.000031 )
Boeing 747-400( toe_brakes_scale = 1.24 )
Beech Baron 58( toe_brakes_scale = 1.0 )
auto_brakesThe number of increments that the auto-braking switch can be turned to. Airbus A321( auto_brakes = 3 )
Boeing 737-800( auto_brakes = 4 )
Beech Baron 58( auto_brakes = 0 )
hydraulic_system_scalarThe ratio of hydraulic system pressure to maximum brake hydraulic pressure. Airbus A321( hydraulic_system_scalar = 1 )
differential_braking_scaleDifferential braking is a function of the normal both brakes on and the rudder pedal input. The amount of difference between the left and right brake is scaled by this value. 1.0 is the normal setting if differential braking is desired (particularly on tailwheel airplanes). 0.0 is the setting if no differential braking is desired. Douglas DC-3( differential_braking_scale = 1.0 )


The following parameters define the aircraft's hydraulic system:

normal_pressureThe normal operating pressure of the hydraulic system, in pounds per square inch. Airbus A321( normal_pressure = 3000.0 )
Aircreation582SL( normal_pressure=0.000000 )
Beech Baron 58( normal_pressure = 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( normal_pressure = 1000.0 )
electric_pumpsThe number of electric hydraulic pumps the aircraft is configured with. Airbus A321( electric_pumps = 0 )
Boeing 737-800( electric_pumps = 1 )
engine_mapThis series of flags sets whether the corresponding engines of the aircraft are configured with hydraulic pumps. The flags correspond in order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. By default, all engines are equipped to drive a hydraulic pump. Airbus A321( engine_map = 1,1,0,0 )
Boeing 747-400( engine_map = 1,1,1,1 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( engine_map = 1,0,0,0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( engine_map = 1 )


The following parameter define the pilot's viewpoint.

eyepointPosition relative to datum reference point.Airbus A321( eyepoint=48.2, -1.35, 1.7 )
Aircreation582SL( eyepoint=-0.205052,0.000000,3.604314 )
Boeing 747-400( eyepoint = -18.55, -1.97, 10.7 )
Beech Baron 58( eyepoint = -8.213, -0.8612, 2.220 )
zoomZoom the view in or out from the viewpoint.Default( zoom=1.0 )


For each flap set that is on the aircraft, a corresponding [flaps.n] section should exist.  Most general aviation aircraft and smaller jets only have one set of flaps (trailing edge), but it is typical for the larger commercial aircraft to have a set of leading edge flaps in addition to the trailing edge flaps.  The number of flap sets are determined by the number of [flaps.n] sections contained in the aircraft.cfg file.

typeInteger value that indicates if this is a leading edge or trailing edge flap set:
0 = no flaps 1 = trailing edge, 2 = leading edge.
Airbus A321( type = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( type=0 )
Boeing 737-800( type = 2 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( type=1 )
span-outboardThe percentage of half-wing span the flap extends to (from the wing-fuselage intersection). Airbus A321( span-outboard = 0.8 )
Aircreation582SL( span-outboard=0.500000 )
Beech Baron 58( span-outboard = 0.41 )
Beech King Air 350( span-outboard = 0.5 )
extending-timeTime it takes for the flap set to extend to the fullest deflection angle specified (seconds). Airbus A321( extending-time = 20 )
Aircreation582SL( extending-time=0.000000 )
Boeing 737-800( extending-time = 2 )
Boeing 747-400( extending-time = 25 )
Each element of the flaps-position array indicates the deflection angle to which the flaps will deflect (in degrees). The largest deflection angle will be the one used for full flap deflection. Cessna Grand Caravan( flaps-position.0= 0 )
Sailplane( flaps-position.0 = -9.0 )
Maule M7 260C( flaps-position.0 = -7 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.0 = 0 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.1 = 1 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.2 = 2)
Airbus A321( flaps-position.3 = 5 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.4 = 10 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.5 = 15 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.6 = 25 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.7 = 30 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.8 = 40 )
damaging-speedSpeed at which the flaps begin to accrue damage (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). Airbus A321( damaging-speed = 250 )
Boeing 747-400( damaging-speed = 200 )
Beech Baron 58( damaging-speed = 152 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( damaging-speed = 120 )
blowout-speedSpeed at which the flaps depart the aircraft (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). Airbus A321( blowout-speed = 300 )
Boeing 747-400( blowout-speed = 250 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( blowout-speed = 150 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( blowout-speed = 175 )
lift_scalarThe percentage of total lift due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Airbus A321( lift_scalar = 1.0 )
Boeing 747-400( lift_scalar = 0.7 )
drag_scalarThe percentage of total drag due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Airbus A321( drag_scalar = 1.0 )
Boeing 747-400( drag_scalar = 0.9 )
pitch_scalarThe percentage of total pitch due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Airbus A321( pitch_scalar= 1.0 )
Boeing 747-400( pitch_scalar= 0.9 )
system_typeInteger value that indicates what type of system drives the flaps to deflect:, one of:
0 = Electric
1 = Hydraulic
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Manual
4 = None
Airbus A321( system_type = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( system_type=0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( system_type = 0 )
Sailplane( system_type = 3 )


There should be a radio section in each aircraft.cfg.  This section configures the radios for each individual aircraft.  Each of the following keywords has a flag or set of flags, that determine if the particular radio element is available in the aircraft.  A “1” is used for true (or available), and 0 for false (or not available). 

audio.1Is there an audio panel, set to 1. Airbus A321( Audio.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Audio.1 = 0 )
com.1Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com1 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. Airbus A321( Com.1 = 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Com.1 = 1, 0 )
com.2Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com2 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. You cannot have Com2 without Com1. Airbus A321( Com.2 = 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Com.2 = 1, 0 )
nav.1Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav1 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. Airbus A321( Nav.1 = 1, 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Nav.1 = 1, 0, 1 )
Sailplane( Nav.1 = 0, 0, 0 )
nav.2Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav2 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. You cannot have Nav2 without Nav1. Airbus A321( Nav.2 = 1, 1, 0 )
Beech King Air 350( Nav.2 = 1, 0, 0 )
adf.1If there is an ADF receiver, set to 1. Airbus A321( Adf.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Adf.1 = 0 )
adf.2If there is an ADF2 receiver, set to 1.Bombardier CRJ 700( Adf.2 = 1 )
transponder.1If there is a transponder, set to 1. Airbus A321( Transponder.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Transponder.1 = 0 )
marker.1If there is a marker beacon receiver, set to 1. Airbus A321( Marker.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Marker.1 = 0 )


Each light that requires a special effect should be entered in this section. The following table gives the codes for the switches that will turn on the lights.

3Navigation or Position

The first entry of the line defines which circuit, or switch, the light is connected to (see the code table above). Multiple lights may be connected to a single switch. The next three entries are the position relative to datum reference point. The final entry is the special effect file name that is triggered (for example, fx_navred). These files have .fx extensions and should be placed in the root effects folder.Airbus A321( light.0 = 3, -19.14, -47.24, 1.38, fx_navredm , )
Boeing 747-400( light.0 = 3, -150.30, -102.56, 3.22, fx_navredh , )
Beech Baron 58( light.0 = 3, -6.60, -19.29, 0.79, fx_navred , )

Beech King Air 350( light.0 = 3, 0.56, -28.41, 1.97, fx_navred , )
Beech King Air 350( light.1 = 3, 0.56, 28.41, 1.97, fx_navgre , )
Beech King Air 350( light.2 = 3, -31.20, 0.00, 9.09, fx_navwhi , )
Beech King Air 350( light.3 = 2, 0.89, -28.48, 1.87, fx_strobe , )


The aircraft flight controls can be manipulated by the keyboard. Because flight controls naturally become more sensitive as airspeed increases, it can become quite difficult to control the aircraft via the keyboard at high speeds.  To address this problem, the amount a single keypress increments a flight control is decreased by a factor of 1/2 at the first airspeed (in knots) listed on the line for the control, and to 1/8 at the second airspeed, and to  a scale interpolated from these values for all airspeeds in between. The example below shows that an elevator will increment by one degree when the airspeed is zero, by ¾ of one degree at 50 knots, ½ of one degree at 100 knots, 5/16 of one degree at 140 knots, and 1/8 of one degree at 180 knots or greater speed.

Источник их находился где-то совсем близко. Сьюзан поворачивалась то влево, то вправо. Она услышала шелест одежды, и вдруг сигналы прекратились. Сьюзан замерла.

Leave a Comment


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *